Jean-Jacques d’Ortous de Mairan : biography
Jean-Jacques d’Ortous de Mairan (26 November 1678 – 20 February 1771) was a French geophysicist, astronomer and most notably, chronobiologist, was born in the town of Béziers on 26 November 1678. De Mairan lost his father, François d’Ortous, at age four and his mother twelve years later at age sixteen. Over the course of his life, de Mairan was elected into numerous scientific societies and made key discoveries in a variety of fields including ancient texts and astronomy. His observations and experiments also inspired the beginning of what is now known as the study of biological circadian rhythms. At the age of 92, de Mairan died of pneumonia in Paris on 20 February 1771.
Scientific societies and recognition
In 1718, de Mairan was inducted into the Académie Royale des Sciences. The Cardinal and the Count of Maurepas selected Mairan to replace Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle as Associate Secretary of the Academie in 1743. De Mairan also served as the Academie’s assistant director and later director intermittently between 1721 and 1760. Eventually, de Mairan was appointed editor of the Journal des sçavans, a science periodical, by Chancellor d’Aguesseau. Also, in 1735, de Mairan was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and in 1769, a Foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences as well as to the Russian Academy (St. Petersburg) in 1718. De Mairan was also a member of the Royal Societies of London, Edinburgh, and Uppsala and the Institute of Bologna. With Jean Bouillet and Antoine Portalon, he founded his own scientific society in his hometown of Béziers around 1723.
De Mairan attended college in Toulouse from 1694–1697 with a focus in ancient Greek. In 1698 he went to Paris to study mathematics and physics under the teachings of Nicolas Malebranche. In 1702, he returned home to Béziers and began his lifelong study of several fields, most notably astronomy and plant rhythms. Furthermore, during his time in Béziers, he ate every day with Cardinal de Fleury; later, de Mairan founded his society under the protection of Cardinal de Fleury. Eventually, de Mairan received official lodging in the Louvre where he remained pensionnaire until 1743 and served as secretary from 1741 to 1743. In 1746, he was reinstated as pensionnaire geometre, or full-time boarding surveyor. It is reported that the Prince of Conti and other great lords heaped extravagant gifts upon him. He was also secretary to the Duke of Orléans.
Observations and notable experiments
- In 1719, De Mairan discussed the varying obliquity of light that causes cold in winter and heat in summer. He postulated that the sun’s heating effect was related to the square of the sine of its elevation. He neglected the effects of atmosphere, admitting that he did not know how much the sun’s heat would be absorbed by it. Two and a half years later, he presented a paper to the Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris: "Problem: the ratio of two degrees or quantities of sunlight seen through the atmosphere at two different known angular elevations being given, to find what part of the absolute light of the sun is intercepted by the atmosphere at any desired elevation." In this paper, de Mairan made a hypothesis based on mere observations, supposing that the ratio had been measured, even though it had not. The significance of de Mairan’s work, although incorrect, led his protégé, Pierre Bouguer, to invent the photometer.
- In 1729, de Mairan constructed an experiment showing the existence of a circadian rhythms in plants, presumably originating from an endogenous clock, or the rhythms internally generated by an organism (See ‘Experiment on circadian rhythms in plants’ below). See
- In 1731, he also observed a nebulosity around a star near the Orion nebula. This was later designated M43 by Charles Messier.
Beyond astronomical and circadian observations, de Mairan actively worked in several other fields of physics including "heat, light, sound, motion, the shape of the Earth, and the aurora".