Isaiah : biography
Isaiah ( or ;
; Greek: ', Ēsaïās ; Arabic: إشعيا Ishiya; "Yahu is salvation"New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Tyndale Press, Wheaton, IL, USA 1987.) was a prophet who lived in the 8th-century BC Kingdom of Judah.The Scofield Study Bible III, NKJV, Oxford University PressDe Jong, Matthijs J., Isaiah Among The Ancient Near Eastern Prophets: A Comparative Study of the Earliest Stages of the Isaiah Tradition and the Neo-Assyrian Prophecies, BRILL, 2007, p. 13–17
Jews and Christians consider the Book of Isaiah a part of their Biblical canon; he is the first listed (although not the earliest) of the neviim akharonim, the latter prophets.JPS Hebrew English Tanakh, Jewish Publication Society, 2000
Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335–395), believed that the Prophet Esaias (Isaiah) "knew more perfectly than all others the mystery of the religion of the Gospel". Jerome (c. 342–420) also lauds the Prophet Esias, saying, "He was more of an Evangelist than a Prophet, because he described all of the Mysteries of the Church of Christ so vividly that you would assume he was not prophesying about the future, but rather was composing a history of past events."The Lives of the Holy Prophets, Holy Apostles Convent, ISBN 0-944359-12-4, page 101.
Although Isaiah is not mentioned by name in the Qur’an or in the authenticated sayings of the Islamic prophet Muhammed, Muslim sources have accepted him as a prophet.Encyclopedia of Islam Some Muslim scholars, such as Ibn Kathir and Kisa’i, reproduced Jewish traditions, transmitted through early Jewish converts to Islam, regarding Isaiah. Such Old Testament stories, which are not confirmed by the Quran or prophetic hadeeth, are referred to as Isra’iliyyah, and are not considered strong enough to be used as evidence in Islamic law. Isaiah is mentioned as a prophet in Ibn Kathir’s and the modern writers Muhammad Asad and Abdullah Yusuf AliThe Holy Qur’an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note. 2173 to 17:4: "The Book is the revelation given to the Children of Israel. Here it seems to refer to the burning words of Prophets like Isaiah. For example, see Isaiah, chap, 24. or Isaiah 5:20–30, or Isaiah 3:16–26." accepted Isaiah as a true Hebrew prophet, who preached to the Israelites following the death of King David. Isaiah is well known in Muslim exegesis and literature, notably for his predictions of the coming of Jesus and Muhammad.Encyclopedia of Islam, Shaya, Online Web. Isaiah’s narrative in Muslim literature can roughly be divided into three sections. The first part establishes Isaiah as a prophet of Israel during the reign of Hezekiah; the second part focuses on Isaiah’s actions during the siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib; and the third part is primarily focused upon Isaiah warning the people of coming doom.Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings, i, 638–45
Muslim exegesis preserves a tradition, which parallels that of the Hebrew Bible, which states that Hezekiah was the king that ruled over Jerusalem during Isaiah’s time. Story of the Prophet Hezekiah obeyed and gave an ear to what Isaiah advised him but, nonetheless, this was a turbulent time for Israel.Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Isaiah bin Amoz Tradition, however, maintains that Hezekiah was a righteous man and that the turbulence increased after Hezekiah’s death. After the death of the king, Isaiah told the people to not forsake God and he warned Israel that the people must cease from their persistent sin and acts of disobedience. Muslim tradition maintains that the unrighteous people of Israel were angered and sought to kill Isaiah. In a death that resembles that attributed to Isaiah in Lives of the Prophets, Muslim exegesis recounts that Isaiah was martyred by Israelites by being sawed in half.
In the Baha’i Faith
Isaiah is considered a lesser prophet in the Baha’i Faith.An Introduction to the Baha’i Faith – Page 108, Peter Smith – 2008 Abdul-Baha mentions prophecies by Isaiah which refer to a man called the Branch as applying to Baha’ullah.Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era: An Introduction to the Bahá’í Faith – Page 239, J. E. Esslemont – 2006