Garry Kasparov : biography
Garry Kimovich Kasparov ( ; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein;Garry Kasparov on Garry Kasparov, part I, 2011, ISBN 978-1-85744-672-2, pp. 16–17 born 13 April 1963) is a Russian (formerly Soviet) chess grandmaster, a former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist, considered by many to be the greatest chess player of all time."Most experts place [Bobby Fischer] the second or third best ever, behind Kasparov but probably ahead of Karpov." – , Leonard Barden, The Guardian, 19 January 2008
Kasparov became the youngest ever undisputed World Chess Champion in 1985 at the age of 22 by defeating then-champion Anatoly Karpov.Ruslan Ponomariov won the disputed FIDE title, at the age of 18, when the world title was split He held the official FIDE world title until 1993, when a dispute with FIDE led him to set up a rival organization, the Professional Chess Association. He continued to hold the "Classical" World Chess Championship until his defeat by Vladimir Kramnik in 2000. He was the first world champion to lose a match to a computer under standard time controls, when he lost to Deep Blue in 1997.
Kasparov’s ratings achievements include being rated world No. 1 according to Elo rating almost continuously from 1986 until his retirement in 2005. He achieved a peak rating of 2851, which was the highest recorded until 2013. He was the world No. 1 ranked player for 255 months, nearly three times as long as his closest rival, Anatoly Karpov. Kasparov also holds records for consecutive tournament victories and Chess Oscars.
Kasparov announced his retirement from professional chess on 10 March 2005, so that he could devote his time to politics and writing. He formed the United Civil Front movement, and joined as a member of The Other Russia, a coalition opposing the administration and policies of Vladimir Putin. In 2008, he announced an intention to run as a candidate in the 2008 Russian presidential race, but failure to find a sufficiently large rental space to assemble the number of supporters that is legally required to endorse such a candidacy, led him to withdraw. Although he is widely regarded in the West as a symbol of opposition to Putin, support for him as a candidate was low.Conor Sweeney, Chris Baldwin, He is currently on the board of directors for the Human Rights Foundation.
Chess against computers
32 simultaneous computers, 1985
Kasparov played against thirty-two different chess computers in Hamburg, winning all games with some difficulty.
Deep Thought, 1989
Kasparov defeated the chess computer Deep Thought in both games of a two-game match in 1989.
Deep Blue, 1996
In February 1996, IBM’s chess computer Deep Blue defeated Kasparov in one game using normal time controls, in Deep Blue – Kasparov, 1996, Game 1. Kasparov gained three wins and two draws and won the match.
Deep Blue, 1997
In May 1997, an updated version of Deep Blue defeated Kasparov 3½–2½ in a highly publicized six-game match. The match was even after five games but Kasparov lost quickly in Game 6. This was the first time a computer had ever defeated a world champion in match play. A documentary film was made about this famous matchup entitled Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine.
Kasparov claimed that several factors weighed against him in this match. In particular, he was denied access to Deep Blue’s recent games, in contrast to the computer’s team, which could study hundreds of Kasparov’s.
After the loss Kasparov said that he sometimes saw deep intelligence and creativity in the machine’s moves, suggesting that during the second game, human chess players, in contravention of the rules, intervened. IBM denied that it cheated, saying the only human intervention occurred between games. The rules provided for the developers to modify the program between games, an opportunity they said they used to shore up weaknesses in the computer’s play revealed during the course of the match. Kasparov requested printouts of the machine’s log files but IBM refused, although the company later published the logs on the Internet., IBM Research Website Although Kasparov wanted another rematch, IBM declined and ended their Deep Blue program.