Augustin-Louis Cauchy : biography
The year 1848 was the year of revolution all over Europe; revolutions broke out in numerous countries, beginning in France. King Louis-Philippe, fearful of sharing the fate of Louis XVI, fled to England. The oath of allegiance was abolished, and the road to an academic appointment was finally clear for Cauchy. On March 1, 1849, he was reinstated at the Faculté de Sciences, as a professor of mathematical astronomy. After political turmoil all through 1848, France chose to become a Republic, under the Presidency of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and son of Napoleon’s brother, who had been installed as the first king of Holland. Soon (early 1852) the President became the Emperor of France, and took the name Napoleon III.
Not unexpectedly, the idea came up in bureaucratic circles that it would be useful to require a loyalty oath from all state functionaries, including university professors. Not always does history repeat itself, however, because this time a cabinet minister was able to convince the Emperor to exempt Cauchy from the oath. Cauchy remained a professor at the University until his death at the age of 67. He received the Last Rites and died at 4 a.m. on May 23, 1857.
His name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.
Politics and religious beliefs
Augustin Louis Cauchy grew up in the house of a staunch royalist. This made his father flee with the family to Arcueil during the French Revolution. Their life there was apparently hard; Augustin-Louis’s father, Louis François, spoke of living on rice, bread, and crackers during the period. A paragraph from an undated letter from Louis François to his mother in Rouen says:C. A. Valson. , v. 1, p. 13.
In any event, he inherited his father’s staunch royalism and hence refused to take oaths to any government after the overthrow of Charles X.
He was an equally staunch Catholic and a member of the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul. He also had links to the Society of Jesus and defended them at the Academy when it was politically unwise to do so. His zeal for his faith may have led to his caring for Charles Hermite during his illness and leading Hermite to become a faithful Catholic. It also inspired Cauchy to plead on behalf of the Irish during the Potato Famine.
His royalism and religious zeal also made him contentious, which caused difficulties with his colleagues. He felt that he was mistreated for his beliefs, but his opponents felt he intentionally provoked people by berating them over religious matters or by defending the Jesuits after they had been suppressed. Niels Henrik Abel called him a "bigoted Catholic" and added he was "mad and there is nothing that can be done about him," but at the same time praised him as a mathematician. Cauchy’s views were widely unpopular among mathematicians and when Guglielmo Libri Carucci dalla Sommaja was made chair in mathematics before him he, and many others, felt his views were the cause. When Libri was accused of stealing books he was replaced by Joseph Liouville which caused a rift between him and Cauchy. Another dispute concerned Jean Marie Constant Duhamel and a claim on inelastic shocks. Cauchy was later shown, by Jean-Victor Poncelet, that he was in the wrong.
The genius of Cauchy was illustrated in his simple solution of the problem of Apollonius—describing a circle touching three given circles—which he discovered in 1805, his generalization of Euler’s formula on polyhedra in 1811, and in several other elegant problems. More important is his memoir on wave propagation, which obtained the Grand Prix of the French Academy of Sciences in 1816. Cauchy’s writings covered notable topics including: the theory of series, where he developed the notion of convergence and discovered many of the basic formulas for q-series. The theory of numbers and complex quantities; he was the first to define complex numbers as pairs of real numbers. The theory of groups and substitutions; and the theory of functions, differential equations, and determinants.