William Juxon bigraphy, stories - Churchman, Bishop of London, Archbishop of Canterbury

William Juxon : biography

1582 - 4 June 1663

William Juxon (1582 – 4 June 1663) was an English churchman, Bishop of London from 1633 to 1649 and Archbishop of Canterbury from 1660 until his death. As Lord High Treasurer and First Lord of the Admiralty, Juxon was the last English clergyman to hold both secular and clerical offices in the medieval tradition of clerical state service.Encyclopaedia Britannia, 1911. See Sources.

Life

Education

Juxon was the son of Robert Juxon and was born probably in Chichester, and educated at the local grammar school, The Prebendal School. He then went on to Merchant Taylors' School, London, and St John's College, Oxford, where he was elected to a scholarship in 1598.

Ecclesiastical offices

Juxon studied law at Oxford, but afterwards took holy orders, and in 1609 became vicar of St Giles' Church, Oxford, where he stayed until he became rector of Somerton, Oxfordshire in 1615. In December 1621, he succeeded his friend, William Laud, as President (i.e.. head) of St John's College, and in 1626 and 1627 he was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford. Juxon soon obtained other important positions, including that of chaplain-in-ordinary to King Charles I.

In 1627, he was made Dean of Worcester and in 1632 he was nominated to the bishopric of Hereford and resigned the presidency of St John's in January 1633. However, he never took up duties at Hereford, as in October 1633 he was consecrated Bishop of London in succession to Laud.

Secular offices

In March 1636 Charles I entrusted Juxon with important secular duties by making him Lord High Treasurer of England as well as First Lord of the Admiralty; for the next five years he had to deal with many financial and other difficulties. He resigned the treasurership in May 1641. During the Civil War, the bishop, against whom no charges were brought in parliament, lived undisturbed at Fulham Palace. His advice was often sought by the king, who had a very high opinion of him. The king selected Juxon to be with him on the scaffold and to offer him the last rites before his execution.

Retirement and archbishopric

Juxon was deprived of his bishopric in 1649 and retired to Little Compton in Gloucestershire, where he had bought an estate, and became famous as the owner of a pack of hounds. At the restoration of King Charles II he became Archbishop of Canterbury and in his official capacity he took part in the new king's coronation, but his health soon began to fail and he died at Lambeth. By his will the archbishop was a benefactor to St John's College, where he was buried; he also aided the work of restoring St Paul's Cathedral and rebuilt the great hall at Lambeth Palace.

Memorials

Juxon House, which stands north-west of St Paul's Cathedral at the top of Ludgate Hill in London and forms part of the Paternoster Square development, is named after him. Juxon Street on land at Walton Manor formerly owned by St John's College in the inner-city suburb of Jericho, Oxford, is also named after him.

Sources

Living octopus

Living octopus

In countries which are located near sea coasts, sea food is an important part of national cuisine