Pope Julius III bigraphy, stories - Pope

Pope Julius III : biography

10 September 1487 - 23 March 1555

Pope Julius III ( ; 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was the head of the Catholic Church from 7 February 1550 to his death in 1555.

Distinguished as a effective diplomat, he was elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate. As Pope he made only reluctant and short-lived attempts at reform, mostly devoting himself to a life of personal pleasure. His and the Church's reputation was greatly harmed by Julius' scandal-ridden relationship with his adopted nephew.

Education and early career

Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte was born in Rome. He was educated by the humanist Raffaele Brandolini Lippo, and later studied law at Perugia and Siena. During his career, he distinguished himself as a brilliant canonist rather than as a theologian.

Del Monte was the nephew of Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Archbishop of Manfredonia (1506-1511). When his uncle exchanged this see for a position as a Cardinal in 1511, Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte succeeded in Manfredonia in 1512. In 1520, del Monte also became bishop of Pavia. Popular for his affable manner and respected for his administrative skills, he was twice governor of Rome and was entrusted by the curia with several duties. At the Sack of Rome (1527) he was one of the hostages given by Pope Clement VII to the Emperor's forces, and barely escaped execution. Pope Paul III made him Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina in 1536 and employed him in several important legations, notably as papal legate and first president of the Council of Trent (1545/47) and then at Bologna (1547/48).

Papacy

Election

Paul III died on 10 November 1549, and in the ensuing conclave the forty-eight cardinals were divided into three factions: of the primary factions, the Imperial faction wished to see the Council of Trent reconvened, the French faction wished to see it dropped. The Farnese faction, loyal to the family of previous Pope, supported the election Paul III's grandson, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, and also the family's claim to the Duchy of Parma, which was contested with the Emperor Charles V.

Neither the French nor the Germans favoured del Monte, and the Emperor had expressly excluded him from the list of acceptable candidates, but the French were able to block the other two factions, allowing del Monte to promote himself as a compromise candidate and be elected on 7 February 1550.Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI, (HarperCollins, 2000), 283. Ottavio Farnese, whose support had been crucial to the election, was immediately confirmed as Duke of Parma.

Church reforms

Bronze statue in [[Perugia, 1555.]]

At the start of his reign Julius had desired seriously to bring about a reform of the Catholic Church and to reconvene the Council of Trent, but very little was actually achieved during his five years in office. In 1551, at the request of Emperor Charles V, he consented to the reopening of the council of Trent and entered into a league against the duke of Parma and Henry II of France (1547–59), but soon afterwards made terms with his enemies and suspended the meetings of the council (1553).Richard P. McBrien, 283–284.

Julius increasingly contented himself with Italian politics and retired to his luxurious palace at the Villa Giulia, which he had built for himself close to the Porta del Popolo. From there he passed the time in comfort, emerging from time to time to make timid efforts to reform the Church through the reestablishment of the reform commissions. He was a friend of the Jesuits, to whom he granted a fresh confirmation in 1550; and through the Papal bull, Dum sollicita of August 1552, he founded the Collegium Germanicum, and granted an annual income.Oskar Garstein, Rome and the Counter-Reformation in Scandinavia, (BRILL, 1992), 105.

During his pontificate, Catholicism was restored in England under Queen Mary in 1553. Julius sent Cardinal Reginald Pole as legate with powers that he could use at his discretion to help the restoration succeed.Richard P. McBrien, 284. In February 1555, an envoy was dispatched from the English parliament to Julius to inform him of the country's formal submission, but the pope died before the envoy reached Rome.

Living octopus

Living octopus

In countries which are located near sea coasts, sea food is an important part of national cuisine