Pope Adrian IV bigraphy, stories - Pope from 1154 to 1159

Pope Adrian IV : biography

c. 1100 - 1 September 1159

Pope Adrian IV ( ; c. 1100 – 1 September 1159), born Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare, was the head of the Catholic Church from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.

Adrian IV has been the only Englishman so far to occupy the papal chair. It is generally believed that Nicholas Breakspear was born at Breakspear FarmBreakspear Farm was demolished for housing redevelopment in the 1960s. It stood at in the parish of Abbots Langley in Hertfordshire and received his early education at the Abbey School, St Albans (St Albans School).

Barbarossa and the death of Adrian IV

At the diet of Besançon in October 1157, the legates presented to Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor a letter from Adrian IV which alluded to the beneficia or "benefits" conferred upon the Emperor, and the German chancellor translated this beneficia in the feudal sense of the presentation of property from a lord to a vassal (benefice). Frederick was infuriated by the suggestion that he was dependent on the Pope, and in the storm which ensued the legates were glad to escape with their lives, and the incident at length closed with a letter from the Pope, declaring that by beneficium he meant merely bonum factum or "a good deed," i.e. the coronation. The breach subsequently became wider, and the Emperor was about to be excommunicated when Adrian died at Anagni on 1 September 1159, reputedly choking on a fly in his wine, but probably of quinsy.

His biography was first written by Cardinal Boso in his extension to the Liber Pontificalis.. This source indicates that Boso was a cardinal-nephew of Adrian IV, but more recent sources say that this is incorrect (B. Zenker, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159, Würzburg 1964 p. 149).

Early life

His father was Robert, who later became a monk at St Albans. Nicholas himself, however, was refused admission to the monastery, being told by the abbot to "wait to go on with his schooling so that he might be considered more suitable" (Abbey chronicles). In the event, he did not wait and went instead to Paris and finally became a canon regular of the cloister of St. Rufus monastery near Arles. He rose to be prior and soon thereafter was unanimously elected abbot. This election has been traditionally dated to 1137, but evidence from the abbey's chronicles suggests it occurred about 1145.He is mentioned for the first time as abbot on 29 January 1147; his predecessor Fulchier appears for the last time in 1143. See Brenda Bolton, Anne Duggan, , Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003, p. 25

His reforming zeal as abbot led to the lodging of complaints against him at Rome; but these merely attracted to him the favourable attention of Pope Eugene III, who created him Cardinal Bishop of Albano in December 1149.Brenda Bolton, Anne Duggan, , Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003, p. 26, 42 and 75

From 1152 to 1154 Nicholas was in Scandinavia as papal legate, establishing an independent archepiscopal see for Norway at Trondheim, which he selected chiefly in honour of St. Olaf, whose relics reposed in its church. This led him to create the Diocese at Hamar, and, according to tradition, to form Cathedral schools in Norway's bishopric cities. These schools were to have a lasting effect on Norwegian Catholic spirituality and history, even after King Christian III of Denmark ordered the Reformation in his kingdom. A late example is Scandinavia's most creative and forceful Counter-Reformation figure, the Jesuit Laurentius Nicolai Norvegicus, born as Laurids Nielsen after the Reformation, who attended Oslo Cathedral School in his youth. (Today, despite the prefix Cathedral, these schools have no formal Church ties.) Nicholas made arrangements which resulted in the recognition of Gamla Uppsala (later moved to Uppsala) as seat of the Swedish metropolitan in 1164. As a compensation for territory thus withdrawn, the Danish archbishop of Lund was made legate and perpetual vicar and given the title of primate of Denmark and Sweden.

Living octopus

Living octopus

In countries which are located near sea coasts, sea food is an important part of national cuisine