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Philip, Duke of Parma : biography

15 March 1720 - 18 July 1765

Philip of Spain (15 March 1720 – 18 July 1765) was Duke of Parma from 1748 to 1765. He founded the House of Bourbon-Parma (a.k.a. the Bourbons of Parma), a cadet line of the Spanish branch of the dynasty. He was a son in law of Louis XV.


Born at the Royal Alcazar in Madrid, he was the fourth child and third son of Philip V of Spain and his wife, Elisabeth Farnese.

He was raised in Madrid and as a child showed more interest in art than in politics. He was also the 12th Count of Chinchón Grandee of Spain First Class with a Coat of Arms of de Bourbon after the alienation with Royal Authorization in 1738 of the 11th Conde Don Jose Sforza-Cesarini, Duke of Canzano, title he later ceded to his brother Louis in 1754.

His mother came from the family of Farnese, which had ruled the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla for many generations. The Duchy had been ruled between 1731 and 1736 by his elder brother Charles, but exchanged with Austria for The Two Sicilies after the War of Polish Succession. Twelve years later, in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Austria lost the Duchy, and Philip became the new Duke, founding the House of Bourbon-Parma.

As part of the Treaty of Versailles (1757) between Austria and France it was intended that Phillip would become King of the Southern Netherlands, in a deal that would see French troops occupy key positions in the country – however this arrangement was repudiated by the subsequent Third Treaty of Versailles and Phillip continued in Parma.

The Duchy of Parma was ruined by many years of warfare, and in 1759 Philip named the abled Frenchmen Guillaume du Tillot as his minister to restore the economy. Philip was an enlightened ruler. He stimulated education and philosophy, attracting personalities like Étienne Bonnot de Condillac.

File:Infant de Parme.jpg|Philip, by Louis René Vialy, engraved by Jean-Joseph Balechou (1740) File:Felipe de Parma1.png|Philip in his later years File:Philippbourbonparma.JPG|Philip in 1750 File:Louise Elisabeth of France Family.jpg|The Parmesan family c 1755. (L-R) Ferdinand; Maria Luisa; Wife; Isabella


Philip married Princess Louise Élisabeth of France in Alcalá de Henares, Spain on 25 October 1739. They had the following children:

  • Isabella Luisa Antonietta Ferdinanda Giuseppina Saveria Dominica Giovanna of Parma (31 December 1741 – 27 November 1763) – she married Marie Antoinette's older brother, the Austrian emperor, Joseph II. She had issue, but all her children died in childhood.
  • Ferdinando Maria Filippo Lodovico Sebastiano Francesco Giacomo of Parma (20 January 1751 – 9 October 1802), ) – he succeeded his father as Duke of Parma in 1765 and married his older sister's sister-in-law, the Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria. He left issue.
  • Luisa Maria Teresa Ana of Parma (9 December 1751 – 2 January 1819) – she was known as Maria Luisa. She married her cousin, the Infante Carlos of Spain, and later became the Queen Consort of Spain. She left issue.
Family of Philip in 1743

Philip died unexpectedly on 18 July 1765 in Alessandria, Italy, after having accompanied his daughter Maria Luisa on her way to Genoa, where she sailed for Spain to marry Infante Charles. Through Philip's daughter Maria Luisa, he is an ancestor of the Bourbons of Spain, the Bourbons of the Two Sicilies, and the House of Orléans.

File:Isabella Louise Elisabeth de Parma.jpg|His wife, Princess Louise-Élisabeth of France Image:Jean-Marc_Nattier_005.jpg|Isabella of Parma, Archduchess of Austria Image:Ferdinando de Parma.jpg|Ferdinand of Parma, Duke of Parma Image:Maria Luisa de Parma1.jpg|Maria Luisa of Parma, Queen Consort of Spain


Patrilineal descent

Patrilineal descent

Philip's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.

Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations – which means that if Duke Philip were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Robertian, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house.

Philip is a member of the House of Bourbon-Parma, a sub-branch of the House of Bourbon-Spain, itself originally a branch of the House of Bourbon, and thus of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians.

Philip's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son. It follows the Dukes of Parma as well as the Kings of Spain, France, and Navarre. The line can be traced back more than 1,200 years from Robert of Hesbaye to the present day, through Kings of France & Navarre, Spain and Two-Sicilies, Dukes of Parma and Grand-Dukes of Luxembourg, Princes of Orléans and Emperors of Brazil. It is one of the oldest in Europe.

  1. Robert II of Worms and Rheingau (Robert of Hesbaye), 770–807
  2. Robert III of Worms and Rheingau, 808–834
  3. Robert IV the Strong, 820–866
  4. Robert I of France, 866–923
  5. Hugh the Great, 895–956
  6. Hugh Capet, 941–996
  7. Robert II of France, 972–1031
  8. Henry I of France, 1008–1060
  9. Philip I of France, 1053–1108
  10. Louis VI of France, 1081–1137
  11. Louis VII of France, 1120–1180
  12. Philip II of France, 1165–1223
  13. Louis VIII of France, 1187–1226
  14. Louis IX of France, 1215–1270
  15. Robert, Count of Clermont, 1256–1317
  16. Louis I, Duke of Bourbon, 1279–1342
  17. James I, Count of La Marche, 1319–1362
  18. John I, Count of La Marche, 1344–1393
  19. Louis, Count of Vendôme, 1376–1446
  20. Jean VIII, Count of Vendôme, 1428–1478
  21. François, Count of Vendôme, 1470–1495
  22. Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, 1489–1537
  23. Antoine, King of Navarre, Duke of Vendôme, 1518–1562
  24. Henry IV, King of France and of Navarre, 1553–1610
  25. Louis XIII, King of France and Navarre, 1601–1643
  26. Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, 1638–1715
  27. Louis, Grand Dauphin of France, 1661–1711
  28. Philip V of Spain, 1683–1746
  29. Philip, Duke of Parma, 1720–1765


Heraldry of Philip of Spain, Duke of Pama
url=|title=Don Philippe, Infant d'Espagne |last1=Balechou |first1=Jean Joseph |last2= |first2= |date= |work= |publisher=National Library of Portugal|language=Portuguese|accessdate=18 March 2013}} url=|title= Parma, Fernando I de Borbón, Duque de (1751-1802) |last1= |first1= |last2= |first2= |date= |work= Ex-Libris Database|publisher=Royal Library of Spain|language=Spanish|accessdate=18 March 2013}}

Titles and Styles

  • 15 March 1720–1749 His Royal Highness Don Felipe, Infante of Spain Style of HRH and further information on Princes of the Blood
  • 1749 – 18 July 1765 His Royal Highness the Duke of Parma, Plasencia and Guastalla
Living octopus

Living octopus

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