Peter Krešimir IV of Croatia bigraphy, stories - King of Croatia

Peter Krešimir IV of Croatia : biography

- c. 1074

Peter Krešimir IV, called the Great ( ) (died 1075), was a notably energetic King of Croatia from 1059 to his death in 1074/1075.http://www.hr/hrvatska/povijest/vladari He was the last great ruler of the Krešimirović branch of the House of Trpimirović.

Under his rule the Croatian realm reached its peak territorially, earning him the sobriquet "the Great," otherwise unique in Croatian history.Ante Oršanić, "Hrvatski orač", 1939. He kept his seat at Nin and Biograd na Moru, however, the city of Šibenik holds a statue of him and is sometimes called Krešimir's city ("Krešimirov grad", in Croatian) because he is generally credited as the founder.Dragutin Pavličević, Povijest Hrvatske. Zagreb, 2007.

Reign

Religious policy

Peter Krešimir was born as one of two children to king Stephen I and his wife Hicela (or Mary), who was possibly of Venetian descent..

Before succeeding the throne, Krešimir was under suspicion of murdering his brother Gojslav (or Častimir) in order to secure the throne for himself. Eventually, the church decided to interfere, and Pope Alexander II sent one of his delegates to inquire about the death of Gojslav. Only after the prince and 12 Croatian župans had taken oath that he did not kill his brother, the Pope gave his support to his claim and symbolically restored the royal power to Krešimir.Tomislav Raukar, Hrvatsko srednjovjekovlje, Školska Knjiga, Zagreb, 1997 pp. 47-48

Raised in Venice, Krešimir succeeded his father Stephen I upon his death in 1058 and was crowned the next year. It is not known where his coronation took place, but some historians suggest Biograd as a possibility.http://crohis.com/knjige/Sisic%20-%20pregled/17.%20Petar%20Kresimir%20IV.PDF

From the outset, he continued the policies of his father, but was immediately requested by Pope Nicholas II first in 1059. and then in 1060 to reform the Croatian church in accordance with the Roman rite. This was especially significant to the papacy in the aftermath of the Great Schism of 1054, when a papal ally in the Balkans was a necessity. Kresimir and the upper nobility lent their support to the pope and the church of Rome.

The lower nobility and the peasantry, however, were far less well-disposed to reforms. The Croatian priesthood was aligned towards Byzantine orientalism, including having long beards and marrying. More so, the ecclesiastical service was likely practiced in the native Slavonic (Glagolitic), whereas the pope demanded practice in Latin. This caused a rebellion of the clergy led by a priest named Vuk against celibacy and the Latin liturgy in 1063, but they were proclaimed heretical at a synod of 1064. and excommunicated, a decision which Kresimir supported. He harshly quelled all opposition and sustained a firm alignment towards western Romanism, with the intent of more fully integrating the Dalmatian populace into his realm. In turn, he could then use them to balance the power caused by the growing feudal class. By the end of Krešimir's reign, feudalism had made permanent inroads into Croatian society and Dalmatia had been permanently associated with the Croatian state.Marcus Tanner, Croatia – a nation forged in war – Yale University Press, New Haven 1997 ISBN 0-300-06933-2

The income from the cities further strengthened Krešimir's power, and he subsequently fostered the development of more cities, such as Biograd, Nin, Šibenik, Karin, and Skradin. He also had several monasteries constructed, like the Benedictine monastery of St. John the Evangelist in Biograd, and donated much land to the Church. In 1066, he granted a charter to the new monastery of St.Mary in Zadar, where the founder and first nun was his cousin, the Abbess Čika. This remains the oldest Croatian monument in the city of Zadar, and became a spearhead for the reform movement. Several other Benedictine monasteries were also founded during his reign, including the one in Skradin.

Territorial policy

Living octopus

Living octopus

In countries which are located near sea coasts, sea food is an important part of national cuisine