Musa Cälil : biography
Monument near the [[Kazan Kremlin, opened in 1983]]
Musa CälilAlso transliterated as Mussa Jalil, Mussa Djalil, Musa Dzhalil, Mussa Dshalil, Mussa Jälil, Musa Celil, Moussa Jalíl (pronounced ; Arabic: موسا ﺟﮫليل; Jaŋalif: Musa Çəlil; Cyrillic: Муса Җәлил; full name: Musa Mostafa ulı Cälilev, Cyrillic: Муса Мостафа улы Җәлилев; ; February 15, 1906 – August 25, 1944) was a Soviet Tatar poet and resistance fighter. He is the only poet of the Soviet Union who was simultaneously awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union award for his resistance fighting, and the Lenin Prize for authoring The Moabit Notebooks; both the awards were awarded to him posthumously.Mussa Jalil. Selected poems. Poetry of Truth and Passion. Rafael Mustafin, translated by Lydia Kmetyuk. Moscow, Progress Publishers, 1981
|1929||("To the Comrade")}}|
|1934||("The Millions Decorated with Orders")}}|
|1943||("The Oath of the Artilleryman")}}|
Moabit Notebooks title Moabit Notebooks title On April 23, 1945, the 79th Infantry Corps of the Soviet Army, that was advancing on the Reichstag, took up positions along the Berlin streets of Ratenowerstraße and Turnstraße. A soldier who paused there before the following attack noticed several lines in Russian on one of the clean pages of a book nearby: "I am the Tatar poet Musa Cälil, held in Moabit prison as a prisoner of war against whom political charges have been preferred, and will most likely be shot soon. If some Russian finds this note, convey my regards to my writer friends in Moscow and break the news to my family". The soldiers sent the page to the USSR Union of Writers in Moscow. That was the first time Russia heard of Musa Cälil's fate.
Cälil's first notebook was preserved by the Tatars Ğabbas Şäripov and then Niğmät Teregulov, both of whom later died in Stalin's camps. Şäripov was also imprisoned in Moabit and received Cälil's and Abdulla Aliş's writings when the prison guards hid from bombing. To preserve the writings, Cälil's group fenced him off. Мусса Джалиль. Моабитские тетради. Татарское книжное издательство. Казань 1963. Составитель - Г. Кашшаф. The second notebook was preserved by the Belgian cellmate André Timmermans. Those notebooks were passed to the Tatar ASSR Union of Writers in 1946 and 1947 correspondingly. They were published as two books under the title Moabit Däftäre (The Moabit Notebook). Cälil's widow Äminä Zalyalova gave the originals to the National Museum of Tatarstan for safekeeping.
One notebook was brought to the Soviet embassy in Rome by the ethnically Tatar Turkish citizen Kazim Mirşan in 1946. However, this notebook was lost in the archives of SMERSH, and pursuits for it since 1979 have had no results.
Rehabilitation and recognition
In 1946, MGB opened a file on Musa Cälil branding him as a traitor. In April 1947, his name was included in the list of wanted "dangerous criminals".
Then Tatar writers and the Tatarstan department of state security proved Cälil's underground work against the Nazis and his death. In 1953, The Moabit Notebooks were published in Kazan and the Russian translation also was published in Literaturnaya Gazeta, owing to its editor, Konstantin Simonov. Musa Cälil was awarded the star of the Hero of the Soviet Union in 1956 and Literature Lenin Prize in 1957 for The Moabit Notebooks.
The monument to Musa Cälil is placed near the Kazan Kremlin; the museum in his flat was opened in Kazan in 1983. His poetry was popularized in the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries.
Soviet Tatar composer Nazib Zhiganov wrote an "opera-poem" Dzhalil based on the life of Cälil. This was premiered in Tatar in Kazan in 1957, and later recorded by conductor Boris Khaykin for Moscow radio.
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