Muhammad bigraphy, stories - Prophet of Islam

Muhammad : biography

c. 570 - 8 June 632

Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim () (circa 570 – circa 8 June 632),Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63 gives 8 June 632, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier, mainly non-Islamic traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. also transliterated as Muhammad (), was a religious, political, and military leader by John Adair from Mecca who unified Arabia into a single religious polity under Islam. He is believed by Muslims and Bahá'ís to be a messenger and prophet of God. Muhammad is almost universally considered by Muslims as the last prophet sent by God for mankind.Not all Muslims believe Muhammad was the last prophet. For example, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Mirza Ghulam Ahmad to be a prophet as well. The Nation of Islam considers Elijah Muhammad to be a prophet (source: African American Religious Leaders - Page 76, Jim Haskins, Kathleen Benson - 2008). United Submitters International consider Rashad Khalifa to be a prophet. (source: Miniatures: Views of Islamic and Middle Eastern Politics - Page 98, Daniel Pipes - 2004) () While non-Muslims regard Muhammad to have been the founder of Islam, Muslims consider him to have been the restorer of an unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.Esposito (1998), p. 12.Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5.

Born in about 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca,

  • Encyclopedia of World History (1998), p. 452 Muhammad was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25.An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p. 182 Being in the habit of periodically retreating to a cave in the surrounding mountains for several nights of seclusion and prayer, he later reported that it was there, at age 40,An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p. 184 that he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām) is the only way (dīn)'Islam' is always referred to in the Quran as a dīn, a word that means "way" or "path" in Arabic, but is usually translated in English as "religion" for the sake of convenience acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets.F. E. Peters (2003), p. 9.Esposito (1998), p. 12; (1999) p. 25; (2002) pp. 4–5Alford Welch, Muhammad, Encyclopedia of Islam

Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes; he and his followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, which is also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. After eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to 10,000, took control of Mecca in the largely peaceful Conquest of Mecca. He destroyed the pagan idols in the citySahih-Bukhari, Book 43, #658 and then sent his followers out to destroy all of the remaining pagan temples in Eastern Arabia.Sahih Bukhari Book 59, #641Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi – The Book of Idols. Translated by Nabih Amin Faris. Princeton University Press, pg. 21–22 In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from The Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam, and he had united Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity."Muhammad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim worldSee:

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