Max Schultze bigraphy, stories - German microscopic anatomist

Max Schultze : biography

March 25, 1825 - January 16, 1874

Max Johann Sigismund Schultze (March 25, 1825 - January 16, 1874) was a German microscopic anatomist noted for his work on cell theory.


Schultze was born at Freiburg in Breisgau (Baden). He studied medicine at Greifswald and Berlin, and was appointed extraordinary professor at Halle in 1854 and five years later ordinary professor of anatomy and histology and director of the Anatomical Institute at Bonn. He died at Bonn on 16 January 1874. He was the older brother of obstetrician Bernhard Sigmund Schultze (1827–1919).

He founded, in 1865, and edited the important Archiv für mikroskopische Anatomie, to which he contributed many papers, and he advanced the subject generally, by refining on its technical methods. His works included:

  • Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Turbellarien (1851)
  • Uber den Organismus der Polythalamien (1854)
  • Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Landplanarien (1857)
  • Zur Kenntnis der elektrischen Organe der Fische (1858)
  • Ein heizbarer Objecttisch und seine Verwendung bei Untersuchungen des BlutesSchultze M. Ein heizbarer Objecttisch und seine Verwendung bei Untersuchungen des Blutes. Arch Mikrosc Anat 1865;1:1-42. (1865, in which the first known description of the platelet)
  • Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Retina (1866)

His name is especially known for his work on the cell theory. Uniting Félix Dujardin's conception of animal sarcode with Hugo von Mohl's of vegetable protoplasma, he pointed out their identity, and included them under the common name of protoplasm, defining the cell as a nucleated mass of protoplasm with or without a cell wall (Das Protoplasma der Rhizopoden und der Pflanzenzellen; ein Beiträg zur Theorie der Zelle, 1863).

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