Mariam uz-Zamani : biography
Mariam uz-zamani (Other Names:Rukmavati Sahiba, Rajkumari Hira Kunwari, Harkha Bai). was a Mughal Empress, after her marriage to Mughal Emperor Akbar .
Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, the autobiography of Jahangir, doesn't mention Jodha Bai .The great Mughal emperor Akbar had three historians during his rule who recorded the history of their time -- Abul Fazal wrote the Akbar Nama, Abdul Qadir Badayuni wrote the Mutakhabutawarikh and Nizamuddin Ahmed (also called Nizamuddin Bakshi) wrote the Tabqat-i-Akbari. None of them have mentioned 'Jodhabhai' in their books. "These books were written in Persian and there is no mention of Queen Jodhabai. There is no proof of her in history," says Dr S M Azizuddin Hussain, history teacher at the Department of History, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi . There is no proper evidence that the mariam uz-zamani was the Emperor Akbar's wife.
Her name as in Mughal chronicles was Mariam-uz-Zamani. This is why the mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum was constructed in The Walled City Of Lahore, present day Pakistan, by her son Jahangir. She was also the sister of Bhagwant Das and the aunt of Man Singh I of Amber.
The Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum was built by her son Nuruddin Salim Jahangir and is situated in the Walled City of Lahore, present day Pakistan, while Mariam's Tomb is situated 1km away from Tomb of Akbar the Great, at Sikandra, near Agra, present day India.
Mariam uz-zamani was married to Akbar on February 6, 1562, at Sambhar, Rajasthan, India. She became a secondary wife of Akbar after, Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, who was Akbar's first wife and principal consort, and his second wife, Salima Sultan Begum, the widow of his most trusted general, Bairam Khan. After her marriage, Hira Kunwari was given the title Mariam-uz-Zamani ("Mary of the Age"). Mariam Zamani Palace She is said to have been politically involved in the court until Nur Jahan became empress.
Maryam Zamani owned and oversaw the ships that carried Haj pilgrims to and from the Islamic holy city Mecca. In 1613, her ship, the Rahīmī was seized by Portuguese pirates along with the 600-700 passengers and the cargo. When the Portuguese officially refused to return the ship and the passengers, the outcry at the Moghul court was quite severe. Zamani's son, the Indian emperor Jahangir ordered the seizure of the Portuguese town Daman. This episode is considered to be an example of the struggle for wealth that would later ensue and lead to colonization of the Indian sub-continent.
Maryam Zamani died in 1623. As per her last wishes, a vav or step well was constructed by Jahangir. Her tomb, built in 1611, is on the Tantpur road now known as in . She was buried according to Islamic custom. The tomb's location reduced its chances of becoming a tourist attraction, but likewise, its lack of visibility meant it fell into a state of disrepair. However, in the middle of 2010, the Ministry of Culture expressed interest for saving it when news of the tomb's condition spread through media. As a result, the location is now under being managed by the Indian Government.
The misnomer Mariam uz-zamani
There is a popular perception that the wife of Akbar, mother of Jahangir, was known as "Mariam uz-zamani".
Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, the autobiography of Jahangir, doesn't mention Jodha Bai. Therein, she is referred to as Mariam Zamani. Neither the Akbarnama (a biography of Akbar commissioned by Akbar himself), nor any historical text from the period refer to her as Jodha Bai.
According to Professor Shirin Moosvi, a historian of Aligarh Muslim University, the name "Jodha Bai" was first used to refer to Akbar's wife in the 18th and 19th centuries in historical writings. According to the historian Imtiaz Ahmad, the director of the Khuda Baksh Oriental Public Library in Patna, the name "Jodha" was used for Akbar's wife for the first time by Lieutenant-Colonel James Tod, in his book Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan.
According to Professor N R Farooqi, a historian of Allahabad Central University, Jodha Bai was not the name of Akbar's queen; it was the name of Jahangir's wife Princess Manmati of Jodhpur, whose real name was Jagat Gosain.
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