Marcos Pérez Jiménez bigraphy, stories - President of Venezuela

Marcos Pérez Jiménez : biography

25 April 1914 - 20 September 2001

Marcos Evangelista Pérez Jiménez (Michelena, Táchira, April 25, 1914 – Alcobendas, Spain, September 20, 2001) was a Venezuelan military and general officer of the Army of Venezuela, engineer and the President of Venezuela from 1952 to 1958.

His ruling period is characterized by marked improvement in development, with the rise of oil prices facilitating many public works achievements. Political and economic stability, along with the completion of ambitious public works and the rapid development of industries such as hydroelectricity, mining, and steel were achieved during this period as well. Pérez Jiménez was also responsible for the modernization of the military and the nation enjoyed a period of high prosperity and social tranquility. However, the government's National Security (Seguridad Nacional, secret police) was extremely repressive against critics of the regime and ruthlessly hunted down and imprisoned those who opposed the dictatorship.

Following massive public demonstrations in support for a democratic reform to take place in the government, Perez was deposed in a coup perpetrated by disgruntled sectors within the Armed Forces of Venezuela on January 23, 1958. Perez was then exiled to Dominican Republic, and afterwards went on to settle in Spain under the Franco regime's protection.

Personal life and death

Pérez had four daughters with his wife, Flor Chalbaud, and one daughter with Marita Lorenz.

1948 coup d'etat

Fears of cuts in pay for soldiers and a lack of modernized army equipment led Pérez Jiménez and Lt. Colonel Carlos Delgado Chalbaud to stage another coup in 1948. Betancourt and Gallegos were exiled, political parties were suppressed, and the Communist Party was once again banished by the Military Junta headed by Delgado Chalbaud, Luis Felipe Llovera Páez and Pérez Jiménez.

After a clumsily arranged kidnapping that ended in the murder of Delgado Chalbaud, the Military Junta changed its name to a Government Junta, and reorganized itself with Pérez Jiménez pulling the strings of puppet President, Germán Suárez Flamerich. However, when results of the much anticipated 1952 elections were showing signs of a massive defeat for the military government, the Junta allegedly fixed the results and named Pérez Jiménez as the winner.

Early life, education and early career

Marcos Evangelista Pérez Jiménez was born in Michelena, Táchira State. His father, Juan Pérez Bustamante, was a farmer; his mother, Adela Jiménez, a schoolteacher. Pérez Jiménez attended school in his home town and in Colombia, and in 1934, he graduated from the Academia Militar de Venezuela, at the top of his class. He subsequently studied at military colleges in Peru.

In 1945, Pérez Jiménez participated in a coup that helped install Democratic Action party founder, Rómulo Betancourt, as President of the Revolutionary Government Junta. The government would later became known as El Trienio Adeco. After a constitutional change providing universal suffrage, elections were held in 1947 which resulted in the election of party member, Romulo Gallegos.

Post-Presidency

In January 1958, there was a general uprising and, with rioting in the streets, Pérez left the country. He moved to the United States, where he lived until 1963, when he was extradited to Venezuela on charges of embezzling $200 million during his presidential tenure. The 1959–63 extradition of Perez, related to Financiadora Administradora Inmobiliaria, S.A., one of the largest development companies in South America, and other business connections, is considered by academicians to be a classic study in the precedent for enforcement of administrative honesty in Latin American countries.“The Extradition of Marcos Perez Jimenez, 1959–63: Practical Precedent for Administrative Honesty?”, Judith Ewell, Journal of Latin American Studies, 9, 2, 291–313,

Upon arrival in Venezuela he was imprisoned until his trial, which did not take place for another five years. Convicted of the charges, his sentence was commuted as he had already spent more time in jail while he awaited trial. He was then exiled to Spain. In 1968, he was elected to the Senate of Venezuela, but his election was contested, and he was kept from taking office. A quick law was passed whereby former prisoners were excluded from participating in the governmental process.

Living octopus

Living octopus

In countries which are located near sea coasts, sea food is an important part of national cuisine