Manuel de Arriaga bigraphy, stories - Portuguese president

Manuel de Arriaga : biography

July 8, 1840 - March 5, 1917

Manuel José de Arriaga Brum da Silveira e Peyrelongue"Anuário da Nobreza de Portugal", 1985, Tomo II ( July 8, 1840 in Horta – March 5, 1917 in Santos-o-Velho, Lisbon) was a Portuguese lawyer, the first Attorney-General and the first elected President of the First Portuguese Republic, following the abdication of King Manuel II of Portugal and a Republican Provisional Government headed by Teófilo Braga (who would succeed him in the post following his resignation).

Notes

Biography

Of his early life details are brief: Arriaga was born to an aristocratic family; son of Sebastião José de Arriaga Brum da Silveira (c. 1810 – Setúbal, 18 October 1881) and his wife, whom he married on 24 December 1834, Maria Cristina Pardal Ramos Caldeira (c. 1815 – ?). Arriaga's father was a rich merchant in the city, only son, and property-owner, whose heritage traced his lineage to the Fleming Joss van Aard, one of the original settlers of the island of Faial (of the male line to a Basque family of small nobility) and whose second cousin was Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, 1st Marquess of Sá da Bandeira. The young Manuel was also the grandson of General Sebastião José de Arriaga Brum da Silveira, who distinguished himself in the Peninsular Wars, and grand-nephew of the Judge of the Supreme Court, who between 1821 and 1822 was also a representative for the Azores in the Constituent Courts.Maria Filomena Mónica, 2006, pp.749

The Arriaga family included six children, of these the following siblings: Maria Cristina, the oldest (a poet, referred by Vitorino Nemésio in his obra-prima Mau Tempo no Canal); José de Arriaga, a historian (known for História da Revolução Portuguesa de 1820, published in 1889 and Os Últimos 60 anos da Monarquia, published in 1911); Sebastião Arriaga Brum da Silveira Júnior, agricultural engineer (after studying abroad, he worked on land recuperation projects in the Alentejo); and Manuel, the fourth in line of succession (who decided early on to concentrate on politics).

Education

Around the age of 18, he moved with his younger brother (José de Arriaga) to Coimbra to study at the University of Coimbra in the Faculty of Law (from 1860 to 1865), where he distinguished himself for his brilliant mind and notable oratory. During this time he adhered to philosophical positivism and republican democracy, where he frequently joined others is discussions on philosophy and politics, showing a capacity for argument and imagination. His republican idealism, considered subversive, caused a rift between him and his conservative monarchist-leaning father (a supporter of the traditionalist King D. Miguel); his father would break-off ties with his sons (for those subverse ideals), forcing the older Manuel to work to support his and his brother's studies. He taught English classes at the local secondary school. His brother wrote in various newspapers in Coimbra and Lisbon, showing himself a proficient writer of science and philosophy.

In 1866, he competed for the 10th chair at the Escola Politécnica (Polytechnical school), as well as the chair in History in the department of Letters. Unsuccessful, he continued in Lisbon as an English teacher. Later, he established a legal practice, and quickly developed a clientele, which permitted him the financial security to assist his brother in completing his studies. Between many of the causes he defended while a lawyer, in 1890, he was the advocate for António José de Almeida, after he wrote "Bragança, o último" a treasties against King D. Carlos in the academic journal O Ultimatum.

Ten years later, on August 26, 1876, he joined the Comissão para a Reforma da Instrução Secundária ("Commission on the Reform on Secondary School Instruction").

Politics

Official portrait of President Arriaga by [[Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro.]] A member of the Portuguese Republican Party (before January 31, 1891), alongside Jacinto Nunes, Azevedo e Silva, Bernardino Pinheiro, Teófilo Braga and Francisco Homem Cristo, he was an active parliamentarian during the constitutional monarchy of King Luís I; he was involved in the debates on the reform of education, the penal code and prisons, in addition to electoral reform. By this time doctrinaire republicans had, by that time, been replaced by others in the party affiliated with masonry or the nascente Carbonari associations.Presidency of the Portuguese Republic, 2006 He was also elected deputy for Funchal (1883–84) in the minority Republican government and later Lisbon (1890–92). A pragmatist, he actively promoted the Republican cause, while maintaining good relations with the Roman Catholic Church, unlike some of his contemporaries in the Republican movement. But, at the same time, he was combative and critical of what he saw as the "lethargy of monarchical governments, the [general] wastes and luxuries of the royal family.Fernando Faria Ribeiro, 2007, pp.67 Yet, he ardently denounced irregularities in his own government, especially when some Ministers transferred funds from the government coffers into private hands.

Living octopus

Living octopus

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