Ljudevit Posavski : biography
Ljudevit Posavski (Trans-Savian) was a Duke of Pannonian Croatia from 810 to 823. The capital of his realm was in Sisak. As the ruler of the Pannonian Slavs, he led an unsuccessful resistance to Frankish domination. He held close ties with the Carantanian and Carniolan tribes and with the Timočani tribe.
Flight to the Serbs
According to Einhard, the writer of the Royal Frankish Annals, following the final Frankish attack, Ljudevit escaped from his seat in Sisak to the Serbs who controlled a great part of Dalmatia (Siscia civitate relicta, ad Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur, fugiendo se contulit.).Goldstein, 1985, p. 235.http://books.google.se/books?id=YIAYMNOOe0YC The notion of Serbs in the relative vicinity of Ljudevit has puzzled numerous historians because the relevant area wasn't otherwise known to have been inhabited by Serbs.
Tadija Smičiklas did not attempt to define the area where Ljudevit fled, while Vjekoslav Klaić wrote it was beyond Sava and Bosna. Konstantin Jireček only indirectly mentioned that the Serbs had a fort around 820, but didn't specify its location. Ferdo Šišić put the ad Sorabos to the southeast of Sava and Vrbas, near the Dalmatian Croats. Vladimir Ćorović mentioned the flight to the Serbs, but didn't expound on it. The 1953 "History of the peoples of Yugoslavia" published by Školska knjiga added apparently fictitious details to the original story. Anto Babić discussed the original text and whether it was a reference to a single fort or a territory.Goldstein, 1985, p. 236. Svetislav M. Prvanović tried to connect Ljudevit and the Guduscani with the Roman city of Guduscum in eastern Serbia, but using only the interpretation of a single comma in Franjo Rački's text and conjecture. Sima Ćirković thought there was a consensus that the place was somewhere in Bosnia, but called the claims of exact locations speculation. Nada Klaić thought that the place Ljudevit fled to was actually the medieval county of Srb by the river Una.Goldstein, 1985, p. 237. Relja Novaković analyzed Einhard and concluded that the area could be somewhere near Kozara, Grmeč, Una and Kupa.Goldstein, 1985, p. 238. Ivo Goldstein acknowledged and accepted the theory that it was located in Srb, but advocated against misinterpreting the scarce historical records.Goldstein, 1985, p. 243–244. Radoslav Katičić argued against the theory, and Tibor Živković concurred with him.Tibor Živković: On the Beginnings of Bosnia in the Middle Ages, 2010; in the Yearbook of the Center for Balkan Studies of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, p. 153, in Serbian,
Ljudevit was welcomed at the unnamed Serbian ruler's court, but he tricked him, killing him and then taking the power for himself. Some believe the Serbian ruler was an ally of the Franks and Ljudevit thought that he was about to betray him. Ljudevit soon sent an envoy to the Frankish court, claiming that he is ready to recognize the Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious as his supreme ruler.
Ljudevit's reign was not very well accepted amongst the Serbs, so he fled to Borna's uncle, Ljudemisl of Dalmatia. Ljudemisl had Ljudevit killed in 823.
In January of 820, Borna made an alliance with the Frankish Emperor in Aachen. The plan was to crush Ljudevit's realm with a joint-attack from three sides. As soon as the winter retreated, massive Frankish armies were being amassed in Italia, East Francia, Bavaria, Saxony and Alemannia that were going to simultaneously invade Ljudevit's lands in the spring. The northern Frankish group moved from Bavaria across Pannonia to make an invasion across the river of Drava. Ljudevit's forces successfully stopped this Army at the river. The southern group moved across the Noric Alps, using the road from Aquileia to Emona. Ljudevit was successful again, as he stopped them before crossing the Alps. The central group moved from Tyrol to Carniola. Ljudevit attempted to halt its advance three times, but every single time would the Franks win, using numerical advantage. When this Army reached the Drava, Ljudevit had to fall back to the heart of his realm.
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