Karl Marx : biography
On the 5th of May in 1818 in a lawyer’s family from Trier town the third child was born, who was named Karl. The head of the family, Heinrich Marx, was a very talented and unordinary person, who took big care of his children, and it especially concerned spiritual bringing up. Karl’s mother Henriett (Presbork in girlhood) was a Netherlander by birth, and she also brought children up with love and care. A year before Karl’s birth Heirich Marx had become a Protestant in order not to lose a status of a court counselor. But he christened the boy, when he was already six years old, in the Trier evangelical church. But later Karl would reject religion.
Till twelve years old Karl studied at home, and then he entered a classical school. He studied without problems, especially in occasions, when good imagination, independence of artistic mind and quickness of wit were needed. When he mastered The Greek and Latin language, he began to read ancient text in original without any problems. But nobody could say that Karl Marx didn’t succeed in exact sciences – mathematics was easy for him. In 1835, when he finished the school, Karl became a student of the BOnn University. But he studied only for a year and then transferred to the Berlin University on the juridical department. Karl Marx studied not only law in Berlin, but also theory of art, history, and also improved his knowledge in foreign languages. There he also studied philosophy in depth.
In 1836 he became engaged with a friend of his elder sister. Jenny von Westphalen was four years older than Karl, but it didn’t disturb them from loving each other.
In university Marx was interested with a group of Young Hegelians and became closer to them. Arguments with followers of famous Hegel strengthened Marx’ interest to philosophy, and since 1839 this science became the main thing in his life. In 1841 Marx finished the university without attending classes by preparing a dissertation “A difference between Democritus’ nature philosophy and Epicurus nature philosophy”, which impressed the council so much that the pretender was awarded with a diploma of a doctor of philosophy. But he defended his dissertation in the Jena University, because it was much more expensive to do it in the Berlin University. When he got a diploma, he announced a new principle – an active attitude of philosophy to reality. And he also announced about his atheism.
In autumn of 1842 Marx became an editor in “The Rhine Newspaper”. Since that time his articles defined political direction of the newspaper. Marx thought that revolutionary struggle was needed to get democratic freedom. It was clear that the Prussian government couldn’t calmly watch such appeals. Practically in every number of the newspaper censorship crossed out huge amount of information. Marx endured such attitude of government with great difficulty – he wanted to tell what he thought. But the government didn’t want to stand it for long. “The Rhine Newspaper” was closed in January of 1843.
In June of that year Karl and Jenny von Westphalen got married. Both families didn’t approve their marriage, but nevertheless, young couple disregarded their parents and never regretted about it. The honeymoon was spent in Switzerland, and the first child of Marx was born in Paris.
Marx had to move to Paris because the Prussian government offered him to become a governmental worker, and he considered this offer as an obvious bribery and rejected it. In the France capital Marx met Friedrich Engels, and then his revolutionary communistic views finally became formed. With Engels’ help Marx tried to publish a magazine “German-French annual”, and in February of 1844 its only number appeared. But this edition was a main landmark, as it contained Marx’ thought about revolutionary communistic transformation of society as the only real way to overcome limited possibilities of bourgeois revolution. Besides, Marx actively collaborated with the newspaper “Forward!” and took part in activity of German emigration’s groups.
In January of 1945 French government deported workers and editors of the newspaper “Forward!” in hope to please the Prussian government. The Marx family went to Brussels, where they suffered from miseries and destitution – Karl practically had no money. He worked hard, and honorariums for his articles about questions of contemporary politics were the only source of income. But soon Brussels’ police forbade Karl Marx to publish in press. At this moment Friedrich Engels, a faithful friend and companion, helped Marx, organizing collection of money among his followers. Engels also gave Marx a part of his honorarium for his book “The situation of workers in England”. Inspired Marx was absorbed in his work. In collaboration with Engels he prepared a manuscript of a book “German ideology just for half a year. They also created other works and rough copies of “Theses on Feuerbach”.
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