James W. Loewen : biography
James W. "Jim" Loewen (born February 6, 1942) is an American sociologist, historian, and author, best known for his 1995 book, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, which was republished in 2007.
Early life and education
Loewen was born in Decatur, Illinois, to Winifred and David F. Loewen, on February 6, 1942. His mother was a librarian and teacher, and his father was a medical director and doctor. Loewen grew up in Decatur, Illinois. He was a National Merit Scholar as a graduate in 1960 from MacArthur High School.
Loewen attended Carleton College. In 1963, as a junior, he spent a semester in Mississippi, an experience in a different culture that led to his questioning what he had been taught about United States history. He was intrigued by learning about the unique place of nineteenth-century Chinese immigrants and their descendants in Mississippi culture, commonly thought of as biracial. Loewen went on to earn a PhD in sociology from Harvard University based on his research on Chinese Americans in Mississippi.
Loewen first taught in Mississippi at Tougaloo College, a historically black collegeCheney, Matt. . University of Illinois. Retrieved 2010-10-16. founded by the American Missionary Association after the American Civil War. For twenty years, Loewen taught about racism at the University of Vermont. Since 1997, he has been a Visiting Professor of Sociology at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C.
First Amendment battle
Loewen co-authored a United States history textbook, Mississippi: Conflict and Change (1974), which won the Lillian Smith Award for Best Southern Nonfiction in 1975. The Mississippi Textbook Purchasing Board did not approve the textbook for use in the state school system. Loewen challenged the state’s decision in a lawsuit, Loewen v. Turnipseed (1980).http://www.evergreen.edu/news/archive/2008/05/jamesloewen
The American Library Association considers Loewen v. Turnipseed, 488 F. Supp. 1138 (N.D. Miss. 1980), a historic First Amendment case and one of the foundations of our "right to read freely." Mississippi: Conflict and Change was rejected for use in Mississippi’s public schools by the Mississippi Textbook Purchasing Board on the grounds that it was too controversial and placed too much focus on racial matters. Judge Orma R. Smith of the U.S. District Court ruled that the rejection of the textbook was not based on "justifiable grounds", and that the authors were denied their right to free speech and press.. American Library Association. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
Lies My Teacher Told Me
Loewen spent two years at the Smithsonian Institution, where he studied and compared twelve American history textbooks then widely used throughout the United States.http://sundown.afro.illinois.edu/ He published his findings in Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong (1995). He concluded that textbook authors propagate factually false, Eurocentric, and mythologized views of history. The New Press in March 2012 listed Lies My Teacher Told Me as their top all-time bestseller."The New Press Index," March 2012, http://thenewpress.com/catalog_pdfs/thenewpress_fall2012catalog.pdf
He believes that history should not be taught as straightforward facts and dates to memorize, but rather analysis of the context and root causes of events.http://sundown.afro.illinois.edu/liesmyteachertoldme.php Loewen recommends that teachers use two textbooks, so that students may realize the contradictions and ask questions, such as, "Why do the authors present the material like this?"
Teaching What Really Happened
Loewen builds off of Lies My Teacher Told Me in Teaching What Really Happened: How to Avoid the Tyranny of Textbooks & Get Students Excited About Doing History and lays out an argument for how history should be taught at the elementary and secondary levels.http://sundown.afro.illinois.edu/ The Homepage of James Loewen. The first four chapters get to the heart of Loewen’s argument on how history should be taught and chapters 5-10 are about specific issues in history and how to teach them effectively. Chapter one makes the argument that history teachers need to free themselves from the history textbooks and go more in depth with specific issues in history. In chapter two Loewen argues that teacher expectations play a role in student performance, and knowing this can help teachers to close achievement gaps among students. The third chapter lays out why historiography is and should be important to students. Chapter four gives teachers ways to help students “Do history, [and] not merely learn it”.
Chapters 5-10 treat special cases in history such as slavery and the South seceding from the United States. At the end of each chapter is a “Focused Bibliography" which lists additional readings that Loewen feels are important to the chapter. The book is focused at current and future teachers, who may be frustrated with the way that history is usually presented at the elementary and secondary levels and provides ideas on how it should be taught and how to get students engaged. http://store.tcpress.com/0807749915.shtml ‘Teaching What Really Happened’, Teachers College Press, 2000.
Continuing his interest in racial conflict in the United States, Loewen wrote Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism (2005). The book documents the histories of sundown towns, which are towns where black people, Jews, and other minority groups were forced (or strongly encouraged) to leave prior to sundown in order to avoid racial violence threatened and perpetrated by majority white populations.http://sundown.afro.illinois.edu/sundowntowns.php Loewen has written about sundown towns repeatedly throughout his career, including in Lies Across America, where he notably cited the affluent suburb of Darien, Connecticut as meeting his definition of a modern-day de facto sundown town.
At present, Loewen is researching a new book, Surprises on the Landscape: Unexpected Places That Get History Right. The book is planned as follow-up to Lies Across America, which noted historically inaccurate or misleading historical markers and sites across the United States. Surprises will call attention to historical sites that are accurate and provide honest representations of events. His official website invites the public to comment on what towns and historical sites should be included in terms of presenting history "right".http://sundown.afro.illinois.edu/content.php?file=worksinprogress.html