J. Michael Bailey : biography
John Michael Bailey (born July 2, 1957 in Lubbock, Texas) is an American psychologist and professor at Northwestern University. He is best known among scientists for his work on the etiology of sexual orientation, from which he concluded that homosexuality is substantially inherited. He also wrote The Man Who Would Be Queen, which has elicited reactions ranging from strong criticism to a nomination for an award, later retracted, from the Lambda Literary Foundation, an organization that promotes gay literature.
The Man Who Would Be Queen
Bailey's book The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender Bending and Transsexualism was published in 2003.Bailey, J. Michael (2003). The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism. Joseph Henry Press, ISBN 978-0-309-08418-5 In it, Bailey reviewed evidence that male homosexuality is innate, a result of heredity and prenatal environment. He also reviewed the theory of Ray Blanchard that there are two unrelated forms of transsexualism, one that is an extreme type of homosexuality and one that is an expression of a paraphilia known as autogynephilia. Written in a popular science style, the book summarized research supporting Bailey's opinions.
The book generated considerable controversy. Helen Boyd explained what might have motivated some to object to the book:
In response to such criticisms, Bailey reiterated a line from his book: "True acceptance of the transgendered requires that we truly understand who they are."
A transgender woman that he described in the book filed a complaint with Northwestern University alleging that her many discussions with Bailey about his view of trans women and the book he was writing made her a non-consensual subject of IRB-regulated research by Bailey, and that during this time, she had consensual sex with him.Wilson, R. (2003, Dec. 19). . The Chronicle of Higher Education, p. 17. Northwestern found no basis for the complaint.Barlow, G. (2003, Dec. 17). NU professor faces sexual allegations. Chicago Free Press. Transsexual professors Lynn Conway and Deirdre McCloskey filed a complaint against Bailey with Illinois state regulators, alleging that he practiced psychology without a license by providing brief case evaluation letters suggesting candidacy for sex reassignment surgery; however, the department did not pursue those allegations, as he did not accept remuneration for the services and therefore did not violate the law.Carey, Benedict. (2007-08-21.) New York Times via nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-19. At least two women who said they were subjects in his book filed a complaint with Northwestern alleging that Bailey committed scientific misconduct by not informing them that they were to be the subjects of research used in the writing of his book.Wilson, R. (2003, July 25). Transsexual 'subjects' complain about professors' research methods. The Chronicle of Higher Education, p. 10.Associated Press (July 26, 2003 ), " Northwestern did investigate this allegation. Although the findings of that investigation were not released,Wilson, R. (2004, Dec. 10). "." The Chronicle of Higher Education, p. 10. Northwestern's Vice President for Research, C. Bradley Moore, said, "The allegations of scientific misconduct made against Professor J. Michael Bailey do not fall under the federal definition of scientific misconduct." and that the university "has established a protocol to help ensure that Professor Bailey's research activities involving human subjects are conducted in accordance with the expectations of the University, the regulations and guidelines established by the federal government and with generally accepted research standards." Bailey says that he did nothing wrong and that the attacks on him were motivated by the desire to suppress discussion of the book's ideas about transsexualism, especially autogynephilia.
Alice Dreger, an activist on issues affecting people who are intersex and a Northwestern University associate professor, published an account of the controversy in the Archives of Sexual Behavior. According to Dreger, the allegations of misconduct could accurately be described as "harassment", and an "anti-Bailey campaign". Dreger wrote that of the four women who complained to Northwestern, two acknowledged that they were aware they would be included in Bailey's book in their letter to the university. The other two were not described in the book. Dreger also reported that while there was no definitive evidence to refute the allegation of sexual misconduct, datestamps on e-mails between Bailey and his ex-wife indicated that he was at her home looking after their two children at the time the misconduct was said to have occurred. The journal published in the same issue 23 commentaries regarding multiple aspects of the controversy, including criticism of Dreger's analysis.Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2008, volume 37, 365–510. Some critical commentaries have been made available on-line by their authors: Deirdre McCloskey's , Julia Serano's .
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