Empress Xiaoxianchun : biography
Empress Xiaoxianchun (28 March 1712 – 8 April 1748) was the first Empress Consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.
Category:1712 births Category:1748 deaths Category:Qing Dynasty empresses Category:Manchu people
Empress Xiaoxianchun's full posthumous title is:
- Empress Xiaoxianchengzhengdunmurenhuiweigongkangshunfutianchangshengchun(孝賢誠正敦穆仁惠徽恭康順輔天昌聖純皇后)
Empress Xiaoxianchun was born in an aristocratic family that saw many members serving as officials in the Qing imperial court.
Ancestors and elders
- Great-grandfather: Hashitun (哈什屯; 1589–1663), served as a member of the Vanguards under Nurhaci and later joined the Imperial Guards. He served the Shunzhi Emperor after 1650 and was conferred the title of a baron.
- Grandfather: Misihan (米思翰; 1632–1675), served as a minister of the Imperial Household Department during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor. He was also Minister of Revenue and satt on the Deliberative Council of Princes and Ministers.
- Father: Lirongbao (李榮保; died 1723), served as Supervisor of Chahar Province. He was posthumously granted the title of a Duke of the First Class when Lady Fuca became Empress in 1737.
- Maqi (馬齊; 1652–1739), served as Grand Secretariat. He was appointed to the Deliberative Council of Princes and Ministers after displaying meritorious action in the military campaign against Galdan Khan.
- Mawu (died 1726), served in the Imperial Guards, and accompanied the Kangxi Emperor in the campaign against Galdan Khan. He was disgraced in 1709 after conspiring with other court officials to help Yinsi seize the succession to the throne when the Kangxi Emperor was seriously ill. He later took up various posts in the inner court and banners, and became Chamberlain of the Imperial Guards in 1721.
Lady Fuca had seven older brothers, two younger brothers and several sisters. The most notable of her siblings was a younger brother, Fuheng.
- Fuheng (1715–1770), commanded the Qing armies in the Fourth Burma Campaign in 1769.
Lady Fuca bore the Qianlong Emperor two sons and two daughters, of whom only one daughter survived to adulthood.《清史稿》卷二百十四．列傳一．后妃傳．高宗孝贤纯皇后.
- Unnamed daughter (1728), the Qianlong Emperor's eldest daughter, died prematurely.
- Yonglian (永璉; 1730–1738), the Qianlong Emperor's second son, posthumously granted the title of Crown Prince Duanhui (端慧皇太子).
- Kurun Princess Hejing (固倫和敬公主; 1731–1792), the Qianlong Emperor's third daughter.
- Yongcong (永琮; 1746–1747), the Qianlong Emperor's seventh son, posthumously granted the titles of Prince Daomin (悼敏皇子) and Prince Zhe of the First Rank (哲親王).
Empress Xiaoxianchun was born in the Manchu Fuca (富察) clan, which was under the Bordered Yellow Banner of the Eight Banners. Her personal name is unknown. She was the eighth child of Lirongbao (李榮保), the Supervisor of Chahar Province.
Marriage to the Qianlong Emperor
In 1727 Lady Fuca married Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor. She was granted the title of Primary Consort (嫡妃) of Hongli, who was then known as Prince Bao of the First Rank (寶親王), and moved into the Palace of Eternal Spring in the western part of the Forbidden City. In 1735 the Yongzheng Emperor died and was succeeded by Hongli, who became the Qianlong Emperor. Two years later in 1737 Qianlong instated Lady Fuca as his Empress.
In the Draft History of the Qing Dynasty, Lady Fuca is depicted as a respected and virtuous person. She looked after the Qianlong Emperor and the people in the palace, and served her role as Empress well. She was praised and favoured by Qianlong.Draft History of Qing (Qingshi gao 清史稿), chapter 214, biography of Empress Xiaoxian (高宗孝贤纯皇后).
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