Boudica : biography
Boudica ( alternative spelling: Boudicca), also known as Boadicea , and known in Welsh as Buddug (d. AD 60 or 61) was queen of the British Iceni tribe, a Celtic tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.
Boudica’s husband Prasutagus was ruler of the Iceni tribe, who had ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, and had left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman Emperor in his will. However, when he died, his will was ignored and the kingdom was annexed as if conquered. Boudica was flogged, her daughters were raped, and Roman financiers called in their loans.
In AD 60 or 61, while the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was leading a campaign on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni as well as the Trinovantes and others in revolt.Hingley, Richard; Unwin, Christina, Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen, Hambledon Continuum; New Ed edition (15 June 2006), ISBN 978-1-85285-516-1, p.44 and 61 They destroyed Camulodunum, which is modern Colchester. Camulodunum was earlier the capital of the Trinovantes, but at that time was a colonia – a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers, as well as the site of a temple to the former Emperor Claudius. Upon hearing the news of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (modern London), the twenty-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels’ next target. Concluding that they did not have the numbers to defend the settlement, it was evacuated and abandoned. Boudica led 100,000 Iceni, Trinovantes, and others fought the Legio IX HispanaN. Davies, The Isles: A History, 2008, p. 93.S. Dando-Collins, Legions of Rome: The definitive history of every Roman legion, 2012 and burned and destroyed Londinium, Verulamium (modern-day St Albans). An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica.Tacitus, Annals Suetonius, meanwhile, regrouped his forces in the West Midlands, and despite being heavily outnumbered, managed to defeat the Britons in the Battle of Watling Street.
The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius’ eventual victory over Boudica re-secured Roman control of the province. Boudica then either killed herself so she would not be captured, or fell ill and died. The extant sources – TacitusTacitus, Agricola 14-16; Annals and Cassius DioCassius Dio, Roman History differ.
Interest in the history of these events was revived during the English Renaissance and led to a resurgence of Boudica’s fame during the Victorian era, and Queen Victoria was portrayed as her ‘namesake’.The Gentleman’s Magazine, Vol. 42, 1854. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=MFZIAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA541&dq=victoria+boadicea+namesake&hl=en&sa=X&ei=EsIjUcrkB4O_0QXXx4DwBQ&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=victoria%20boadicea%20namesake&f=false Boudica has since remained an important cultural symbol in the United Kingdom. However, the absence of native British literature during the early part of the first millennium means that Britain owes its knowledge of Boudica’s rebellion solely to the writings of the Romans.
Boudica has been known by several versions of her name. Raphael Holinshed calls her Voadicia, while Edmund Spenser calls her Bunduca, a version of the name that was used in the popular Jacobean play Bonduca, in 1612.Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, William Cowper’s poem, Boadicea, an ode (1782) popularised an alternate version of the name.William Cowper, From the 19th century and much of the late 20th century, Boadicea was the most common version of the name, which is probably derived from a mistranscription when a manuscript of Tacitus was copied in the Middle Ages. Her name was clearly spelled Boudicca in the best manuscripts of Tacitus, but also Βουδουικα, Βουνδουικα, and Βοδουικα in the (later and probably secondary) epitome of Cassius Dio. The name is attested in inscriptions as "Boudica" in Lusitania, Boudiga in Bordeaux, and Bodicca in Algeria.Graham Webster, Boudica: The British Revolt against Rome AD 60, 1978; Guy de la Bédoyère, . Retrieved 5 July 2005