Avicenna : biography
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā (Arabic أبو علي الحسين بن عبد الله بن سينا);(Persian پور سينا Pur-e Sina "son of Sina"; c. 980June 1037), commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian
- Ibn Sina ("Avicenna") Encyclopedia of Islam. 2nd edition. Edited by P. Berman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Henrichs. Brill 2009. Accessed through Brill online: www.encislam.brill.nl (2009) Quote: "He was born in 370/980 in Afshana, his mother’s home, near Bukhara. His native language was Persian."
- A.J. Arberry, "Avicenna on Theology", KAZI PUBN INC, 1995. excerpt: "Avicenna was the greatest of all Persian thinkers; as physician and metaphysician"
- Henry Corbin, "The Voyage and the messenger: Iran and Philosophy", North Atlantic Books, 1998. pg 74:"Whereas the name of Avicenna (Ibn sinda, died 1037) is generally listed as chronologically first among noteworthy Iranian philosophers, recent evidence has revealed previous existence of Ismaili philosophical systems with a structure no less complete than of Avicenna". polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving treatises concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine.
His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities. The Canon of Medicine was used as a text-book in the universities of Montpellier and Leuven as late as 1650. Ibn Sīnā’s Canon of Medicine provides a complete system of medicine according to the principles of Galen (and Hippocrates).Edwin Clarke, Charles Donald O’Malley (1996). . Norman Publishing. p.20. ISBN 0-930405-25-0Iris Bruijn (2009). "". Amsterdam University Press. p.26. ISBN 90-8728-051-3
His corpus also includes writing on philosophy, astronomy, alchemy, geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics, physics, as well as poetry. He is regarded as the most famous and influential polymath of the Islamic Golden Age.
The Book of Healing
Ibn Sīnā wrote on Earth sciences such as geology in The Book of Healing.Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield (1965), The Ancestry of Science: The Discovery of Time, p. 64, University of Chicago Press (cf. ) While discussing the formation of mountains, he explained:
Philosophy of science
In the Al-Burhan (On Demonstration) section of The Book of Healing, Avicenna discussed the philosophy of science and described an early scientific method of inquiry. He discusses Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics and significantly diverged from it on several points. Avicenna discussed the issue of a proper methodology for scientific inquiry and the question of "How does one acquire the first principles of a science?" He asked how a scientist would arrive at "the initial axioms or hypotheses of a deductive science without inferring them from some more basic premises?" He explains that the ideal situation is when one grasps that a "relation holds between the terms, which would allow for absolute, universal certainty." Avicenna then adds two further methods for arriving at the first principles: the ancient Aristotelian method of induction (istiqra), and the method of examination and experimentation (tajriba). Avicenna criticized Aristotelian induction, arguing that "it does not lead to the absolute, universal, and certain premises that it purports to provide." In its place, he develops a "method of experimentation as a means for scientific inquiry."
An early formal system of temporal logic was studied by Avicenna., Encyclopædia Britannica. Although he did not develop a real theory of temporal propositions, he did study the relationship between temporalis and the implication. Avicenna’s work was further developed by Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī and became the dominant system of Islamic logic until modern times. Avicennian logic also influenced several early European logicians such as Albertus MagnusRichard F. Washell (1973), "Logic, Language, and Albert the Great", Journal of the History of Ideas 34 (3), p. 445–450 . and William of Ockham.Kneale p. 229Kneale: p. 266; Ockham: Summa Logicae i. 14; Avicenna: Avicennae Opera Venice 1508 f87rb