Adam Müller : biography
Adam Heinrich Müller (30 June 1779 – 17 January 1829; after 1827 Ritter von Nitterdorf) was a German publicist, literary critic, political economist, theorist of the state and forerunner of economic romanticism.
Müller was a man of great and versatile talents, an excellent orator, and a suggestive writer. Several of his works were based upon his own lectures; the most important (besides the above-mentioned periodicals) are:
- Die Lehre vom Gegensatz (Berlin, 1804)
- Vorlesungen über die deutsche Wissenschaft und Literatur (Dresden, 1806, 2nd ed., 1807)
- Von der Idee der Schönheit (lectures; Berlin, 1809)
- Die Elemente der Staatskunst (lectures; 3 parts, Berlin, 1809)
- Über König Friedrich II. und die Natur, Würde und Bestimmung der preußischen Monarchie (lectures; Berlin, 1810)
- Die Theorie der Staatshaushaltung und ihre Forschritte in Deutschland und England seit Adam Smith (2 vols., Vienna, 1812)
- Vermischte Schriften über Staat, Philosophie und Kunst (2 vols., Vienna, 1812; 2nd ed., 1817)
- Versuch einer neuen Theorie des Geldes, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Großbritannien (Leipzig, 1816)
- Zwölf Reden über die Beredsamkeit und deren Verfall in Deutschland (Leipzig, 1817)
- Die Fortschritte der nationalökonomischen Wissenschaft in England (Leipzig, 1817)
- Von der Notwendigkeit einer theologischen Grundlage der gesamten Staatswissenschaften und der Staatswirtschaft insbesondere (Leipzig, 1820; new ed., Vienna, 1898)
- Die Gewerbe-Polizei in Beziehung auf den Landbau (Leipzig, 1824)
- Vorschlag zu einem historischen Ferien-Cursus (Vienna, 1829)
A critical pamphlet, which was written in 1817 on the occasion of the Protestant jubilee of the Reformation and entitled, Etwas, das Goethe gesagt hat. Beleuchtet von Adam Müller. Leipzig, den 31 Oktober 1817, was printed but not published (reprinted in Vienna, 1910). Nevertheless, Traugott Krug's reply, entitled Etwas, das Herr Adam Müller gesagt hat über etwas, das Goethe gesagt hat, und noch etwas, das Luther gesagt hat (Leipzig, 1817), appeared in two editions.
Müller was born in Berlin. It was intended that he should study Protestant theology, but from 1798 he devoted himself in Göttingen to the study of law, philosophy, and natural science. He was a student of Gustav Hugo. Returning to Berlin, he was persuaded by his friend Friedrich Gentz to take up political science. He had early formed a close intimacy with Gentz, his elder by 15 years; and this connection exercised an important influence both on his material circumstances and his mental development in after life. The two men differed widely in character and in their fundamental principles, but agreed, at least in their later period, in their practical political aims, and the friendship was only terminated by death.
Müller worked for some time as referendary in the Kurmärkische Kammer in Berlin. Müller's relations with the Junker party and his co-operation with them in their opposition to Hardenberg's reforms made any public employment in Prussia impossible for him. He travelled in Sweden and Denmark, spent about two years in Poland, and then went to Vienna, where he was converted to the Catholic faith on 30 April 1805. Through Gentz he became acquainted with Metternich, to whom he was useful in the preparation of state papers.
From 1806 to 1809, he lived at Dresden occupied in the political education of Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar and lecturer on German literature, dramatic art, and political science. In 1808 he edited with Heinrich von Kleist the periodical Phoebus. In 1809, he returned to Berlin, and in 1811 to Vienna, where he lived in the house of Archduke Maximilian of Austria–Este and became the friend of Clemens Maria Hofbauer.
In 1813, he entered the Austrian service, and was appointed imperial commissioner and major of the rifle corps in Tyrol. He took part in the wars for liberty, and later on, as counsellor of the government, in the reorganization of the country. In 1815 he was called to Vienna, and went to Paris with the imperial staff.
In countries which are located near sea coasts, sea food is an important part of national cuisine